Although the application to athletics generated the greatest public visibility for Title IX, the gender equity law applies to all aspects of education, including course offerings, counseling and counseling materials, financial assistance, student health and insurance benefits and/or other services, housing, marital and parental status of students, physical education and athletics, education programs and activities, and employment.

With regards to institutions responsibilities in Athletics under Title IX, colleges and universities must ensure that students are provided with: equitable opportunities to participate in Athletics; equitable and proportional scholarship provision; and substantial similarity in the provision of benefits (e.g. scholarships), services (e.g. coaching, tutoring, training) and facilities (e.g. locker rooms, housing).

Under Title IX, there are three independent ways for colleges and universities to demonstrate that they are providing their students with equal opportunities to participate in sports. An institution must show any one of the following:

  • The percentages of male and female athletes are about the same as the percentages of male and female students enrolled, or
  • The school has a history and continuing practice of expanding athletic opportunities for the underrepresented sex, or
  • The school is fully and effectively meeting its students’ interests and abilities to participate in sports.

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